Protein C, human
Description of Protein C (PC)
Protein C (PC) is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein produced in the liver. The concentration of PC in plasma is ~4 Î¼g/ml (~60 nM). A deficiency of Protein C (quantitative or qualitative) is a risk factor for vascular thrombosis. Protein C is expressed as a two-chain molecule with a molecular weight of 62 kDa. The light chain (21 kDa) of PC consists of two EGF-like domains and an amino-terminal domain containing one hydroxyaspartic acid and 11 Î³-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) residues. These residues allow PC to bind to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids in a calcium dependent manner. The heavy chain of PC (41 kDa) consists of the catalytic domain and an activation peptide. Activation of Protein C results from cleavage at residue Arg12 in the heavy chain by a complex of thrombin and a cell surface cofactor thrombomodulin. The activation of PC is associated with the release of a small activation peptide (2-3 kDa, called Protein C peptide, or PCP) from the N-terminal of the heavy chain. Activated Protein C (APC) is a serine protease with anticoagulant activity. APC, in complex with a phospholipid membrane, calcium and the Protein S cofactor, exhibits anticoagulant activity through the proteolytic inactivation of coagulation cofactors Va and VIIIa. The primary inhibitor of APC activity in plasma is Protein C Inhibitor (PCI, also called Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-3, PAI-3) and to a lesser extent by Î±1antitrypsin and Î±2macroglobulin. The inhibitory activity of PCI is stimulated approximately 10 fold by heparin1-3.
1. Broze GJ, Miletich JP; Biochemistry and Physiology of Protein C, Protein S and Thrombomodulin; in Hemostasis and Thrombosis, 3rd Edition, eds. RW Colman, J Hirsh, VJ Marder and EW Salzman, pp 259-276, J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia PA, USA, 1994.
2. Esmon CT, Esmon NL, Le Bonniec B, Johnson AE; Protein C Activation; Methods in Enzymology 222, pp 359-385, 1993.
3. Heeb MJ, Mosher D, Griffin JH; Activation and Complexation of Protein C and Cleavage and Decrease of Protein S in Plasma of Patients With Intravascular Coagulation; Blood 73, pp 455-461, 1989.
GAPC-IG Goat anti-human Protein C, IgG from antiserum
GAPC-AP Goat anti-human Protein C, affinity purified IgG
SAPC-AP Sheep anti-human Protein C, affinity purified IgG
SAPC-HRP Sheep anti-human Protein C, IgG-peroxidase
MAPC-IG Murine anti-human Protein C, IgG from ascites