The Widest Range Of High Quality Coagulation Antibodies

The Widest Range Of High Quality Coagulation Antibodies

Regarding price and performance, polyclonal coagulation antibodies are always preferred over monoclonal antibodies. Polyclonal antibodies are easy to produce compared to monoclonal antibodies, as they don’t require extensive technology and research. There have been a number of laboratories researching antibodies and deriving new and improved coagulation antibodies through thorough research and analysis. One of these companies is Affinity Biologicals, which has expanded its collection of coagulation antibodies over the years. The company provides antibodies in a number of concentrations and formats some of which are:

  • Whole IgG– Base level antibodies purified from antiserum, the purity of IgG is 90%, and it is provided in a solution of HEPES buffered saline.
  • Affinity-Purified IgG– These products are highly purified with a substantially higher titre than whole IgG and this format is beneficial for immunoblotting and immunostaining of cells.
  • Enzyme Labeled IgG– this format includes either whole IgG or Affinity-purified IgG that has been conjugated with Horseradish Peroxidase as a reporter enzyme.

The Products

Some of the coagulation antibodies, which the company offers, are:

Fibrinogen (Fg)

Produced in the liver in humans, Fibrinogen is a 340 kDa plasma protein. Plasma concentrations are usually between 1.7-3.5g/l and the intact Fibrinogen molecule consists of two identical subunits and each one consists of 3 chains of non-identical polypeptide.

Factor V

Produced in the liver, Factor V is one of the largely produced 320kDa glycoprotein. A gene present on chromosome 1 encodes the Factor V. In case of an autosomal recessive disease, there might be a congenital deficiency of Factor V, which is a hemorrhagic disorder.

Factor VIII

It is a 320 kDa glycoprotein that circulates in the plasma at 200 ng/ml. Synthesized in the liver, Factor VIII is a pro-cofactor that is activated through limited proteolysis by thrombin.

Factor X

Produced in the liver, it is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein. The activation of Factor X to the active enzyme FXa results from the cleavage  at residue Arg52 in the heavy chain of F.X by a complex of F.IXa, cofactor VIIIa, calcium and negatively charged phospholipid surface (the tenase complex), or by the F.VIIa-tissue factor complex.

Factor XIII

Essential for wound healing, female fertility, and foetal development, Factor XIII is a proenzyme of transamidase. A subunits (83 kDa) which contain enzyme moiety and B subunits (76 kDa) which act as a carrier protein for the A subunit in circulation are part of Extracellular FXIII.

Protein C

It is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein, produced in the liver. A deficiency of the protein C can result in vascular thrombosis. Expressed as a two-chain molecule, protein C has a molecular weight of 62 kDa.

Plasminogen

Synthesized in the liver and circulating in the plasma, Plasminogen is at a concentration level of ~200 μg/ml.  Possessing five kringle structures, Plasminogen is a single-chain glycoprotein of ~88kDa that consists of a catalytic domain.

Antithrombin (ATIII)

It belongs to the SERPIN family of proteinase inhibitors and it is the primary inhibitor of thrombin in plasma. Antithrombin, also known as Antithrombin III circulates at ~200 μg/ml in the plasma and it is produced in the liver.

Thrombin

The proteolytic activation of the zymogene prothrombin results in the production of Thrombin. The human thrombin is a two-chain serine protease with a mass of 37kDa. Thrombin has a high specificity arginine bonds in protein substrates. The primary substrate is fibrinogen which thrombin converts to fibrin through the cleavage of four arginyl-glycyl peptide bonds.

Protein S

It is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein, which is produced in the liver, endothelium, and megakaryocytes. The concentration of PS in plasma is ~25 μg/ml (~325 nM) where it acts as a cofactor in the anticoagulant activity of activated Protein C.

Tissue Factor

Tissue Factor is an integral membrane glycoprotein present in the plasma membrane of many cell types. It is a single chain molecule of 44 kDa consisting of an extra-cellular domain (residues 1-219), a trans-membrane domain (residues 220-242), and the C-terminal intracellular domain of residues 243-263. Most abundant in the tissue adventitia, TF becomes exposed to blood at the site of vascular injury.

These are just some of the coagulation antibodies Affinity Biologicals has been delivering around the world in institutes, pharmaceuticals, and hospitals. Due to the extensive research, variety, and quality of their products, they have become a primary manufacturer of thrombosis and homeostasis research.

For more information, visit their website, www.affinitybiologicals.com .