Protein S Antibodies
Affinity Biologicals, Inc. manufactures a broad range of Protein S Antibodies which can be found in the listing below. Further information about each individual Protein S antibody is available by following the associated links. Our Protein S Antibodies are excellent for use in immunoassays where high sensitivity is required and are frequently the preferred reagent for immunopreciptaion techniques and activity neutralization assays. These antibodies have proven to be extremely useful in the preparation of immune-adsorbent resins for use in immuno-depletion of specific proteins from plasma as well as immuno-affinity purification of proteins. Affinity’s Protein S Antibodies are manufactured for use in research applications.
Listing of Protein S Antibodies
GAPS-HRP – Goat anti human Protein S, peroxidase conjugated IgG (0.2 mg vial)
GAPS-IG – Goat anti human Protein S, purified IgG (5mg vial)
SAPS-IG – Sheep anti human Protein S, purified IgG (10mg vial)
SAPS-HRP – Sheep anti human Protein S, peroxidase conjugated IgG (0.2 mg vial)
SAPS-AP – Sheep anti human Protein S, affinity purified IgG (0.5 mg vial)
PS-EIA – Protein S Paired Antibody Set – 5 plate set
Description of Protein S
Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein produced in the liver, endothelium and megakaryocytes. The concentration of PS in plasma is ~25 μg/ml (~325 nM) where it acts as a cofactor in the anticoagulant activity of activated Protein C. A deficiency of Protein S (quantitative or qualitative) is a risk factor for vascular thrombosis. Protein S is expressed as a single chain molecule with a molecular weight of 77 kDa. The structure of PS is similar to many other vitamin-K dependent coagulation proteins, consisting of an N-terminal calcium binding domain of 10 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) residues, followed by a thrombin-sensitive loop region and 4 EGF-like domains. The C-terminal domain does not contain the usual catalytic triad of a proenzyme, but seems instead to be involved in the binding of PS to C4b-binding protein (C4bp). Protein S binds to activated Protein C (APC) in the presence of calcium and negatively charged phospholipid surface to allow APC to proteolytically inactivate coagulation cofactors Va and VIIIa. Enzymatic regulation of PS cofactor activity is through cleavage of PS in the thrombin-sensitive loop region by thrombin or other enzymes, resulting in the loss of calcium binding properties and APC cofactor activity. Another regulatory mechanism is to reduce the availability of PS by the binding of PS to C4bp. In plasma, approximately 60% of Protein S circulates in non-covalent complex with C4bp, making it unavailable for APC cofactor activity. The binding of PS to C4bp may be important in localizing C4bp to damaged cell membranes where it may control activation of complement by the classical pathway1-3.
References and Reviews
- Broze GJ, Miletich JP; Biochemistry and Physiology of Protein C, Protein S and Thrombomodulin; in Hemostasis and Thrombosis, 3rd Edition, eds. RW Colman, J Hirsh, VJ Marder and EW Salzman, pp 259-276, J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia PA, USA, 1994.
- Comp PC, Doray D, Patton D, Esmon CT; An Abnormal Plasma Distribution of Protein S Occurs in Functional Protein S Deficiency. Blood 67, pp 504-508, 1986.
- Schwalbe RA, Dahlback B, Nelsestuen GL; Independent Association of Serum Amyloid P Component, Protein S and Complement C4b with C4b-binding Protein and Subsequent Association of the Complex with Membranes; JBC 265, pp 21749-21757, 1990.