Thrombin Antibodies

Affinity Biologicals, Inc. manufactures a broad range of thrombin antibodies to human thrombin, rabbit thrombin and bovine thrombin which can be found in the listing below.   Further information about each individual Thrombin antibody is available by following the associated links.  Our thrombin antibodies are excellent for use in immunoassays where high sensitivity is required and are frequently the preferred reagent for immunopreciptaion techniques and activity neutralization assays.  These antibodies have proven to be extremely useful in the preparation of immune-adsorbent resins for use in immuno-depletion of specific proteins from plasma as well as immuno-affinity purification of proteins.  Affinity’s thrombin antibodies are manufactured for use in research applications.

Listing of Thrombin Antibodies

Description of Thrombin

Thrombin (EC3.4.21.5, α-thrombin) is the product of proteolytic activation of the zymogen prothrombin.  Human thrombin is a two-chain serine protease with a mass of 37 kDa.  The active site is located within the heavy chain.  Thrombin has a high specificity for certain arginine bonds in protein substrates.  The primary substrate is fibrinogen which thrombin converts to fibrin through the cleavage of four arginyl-glycyl peptide bonds.  Thrombin is also an important activator of platelets, factor XIII, Protein C and TAFI (Plasma procarboxypeptidase B).  In a positive feedback mechanism, thrombin increases the rate of its own production by activation of factors VIII and V.  The rate of thrombin production is subsequently limited indirectly through the activation of Protein C by thrombin, which then inactivates the activated cofactors VIII and V.  The binding of thrombin to thrombomodulin on the cell surface dramatically alters thrombin’s specificity, increasing it’s activity toward Protein C and TAFI, and decreasing it’s activity toward fibrinogen and activating cofactors VIII and V.  In plasma, thrombin activity is inhibited primarily by antithrombin and to a lesser extent heparin cofactor II.  The rate of inhibition by both of these inhibitors is profoundly increased in the presence of optimal concentrations of heparin.  Other physiological inhibitors of thrombin in the absence of heparin include α2-macroglobulin and α1-antitrypsin1-4.

References and Reviews

  1. Weitz J, Hudoba M, Massel D, Maranganore J, Hirsch J: Clot-bound
  2. Mann KG; Prothrombin and Thrombin; in Hemostasis and Thrombosis, 3rd Edition, eds. RW Colman, J Hirsh, VJ Marder and EW Salzman, pp. 184-199, J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia PA, USA, 1994.
  3. Stubbs MT, Bode W; A Player of Many Parts: The Spotlight Falls on Thrombin’s Structure; Thrombosis Research 69, pp 1-58, 1993.
  4. Downing MW, Bloom JW, Mann KG; Comparison of the Inhibition of Thrombin by Three Plasma Protease Inhibitors; Biochemistry 17, pp 2649-2653, 1978.